Treatment is a major problem in animal husbandry, especially pork industry. The pressure exerted on livestock before slaughter may have an adverse impact on the meat produced by these animals, including PSE and DFD (see postmortem quality problems). Pre laughter stress can be reduced by preventing mixing of different fauna, keeping livestock cool and ventilated, and avoiding overcrowding. Animals should be allowed to come into contact with water before slaughter, but feeding should be suspended for 12 to 24 hours to ensure complete bleeding and easy removal of internal organs (evisceration).
As the slaughter process began, livestock were confined to a parachute that restricted the movement of the animal's body. Once restricted, animals will be stunned to ensure that there is no painful humanitarian outcome. Amazing can also reduce the pressure of animals and improve the meat quality.
The three most common methods of vertigo are mechanical, electrical, and carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The end result of each method is to make the animal unconscious. Mechanical stunning involves firing a bolt into an animal's skull using a pneumatic device or pistol. Electric shocks send electricity through the animal's brain. Carbon dioxide halo exposes animals to a mixture of carbon dioxide gas, which acts as an anesthetic.
After being knocked unconscious, animals are usually suspended with hind limbs and then moved down the conveyor belt for slaughter procedures. They usually bleed by inserting a knife into the chest and cutting off the carotid artery and jugular vein (a process called adhesion or blood loss). This method can remove the blood in the body to the greatest extent. In this process, slaughter procedures begin to vary from species to species.
Pigs are usually stunned by electricity or carbon dioxide gas. Mechanical stunning is not usually used in pigs because it can cause serious quality problems of meat, including blood splashing of lean and PSE meat (small bleeding visible in muscle tissue).
Pigs are one of the few livestock that leave their skin on the carcass after the slaughter process. Therefore, after bleeding, the butcher experiences an extensive cleaning procedure. First, place them in a hot water tank at 57 to 63 ° C (135 to 145 ° f) for about 5 minutes to loosen the hair and remove dirt and other substances (called dandruff) from the skin. The body is then placed in a depilator, which uses rubber paddles to remove loose hair. After depilation, the carcass is hung on the railing with a hook. The hook passes through the gambley tendon on the hind limb, and any residual hair is shaved and burned.
Exceptions to this procedure occur in some specialized pig slaughtering facilities, such as "whole pig" sausage slaughterhouses. In the production of whole pig sausage, all bone meat is cut from the carcass, so the carcass is usually peeled after bleeding.
After cleaning and depilation, the head is removed and the body is cut directly in the center of the abdomen to remove internal organs (digestive system including liver, stomach, bladder, intestine and reproductive organs), hair removal (chest contents including heart and lung), kidney and related fat (called leaf fat). After cleaning and cleaning, the intestine can be used as the natural casing of sausage products. The body is then divided into two "sides" from the center of the trunk and placed in a cooler (called a "hot box") for about 24 hours before being processed into meat.
Cattle, calves and sheep
These animals are usually stunned by machinery, but some sheep slaughtering facilities also use electricity. Before bleeding with the Achilles tendon suspension of the hind leg, remove the foot from the body. Then, with the help of a mechanical peeler called a "skin puller", the sheep's skin is usually removed by hand in a process called a "fist" (in older operations, the animal's skin and fur are removed with a knife.) Leather (cattle and calves) or fur (sheep) is usually preserved by salting for tanning into leather products. The head is removed at the first cervical vertebra, called the atlas joint. The procedure of evisceration and cleavage is similar to that of pigs, except that kidney, pelvis and heart fat are usually left in the beef carcass for grading. The carcass is kept in the cooler for 24 hours (usually 48 hours for beef) before being processed into meat pieces.
By products are non meat materials collected during slaughtering, commonly referred to as viscera. Various meats include liver, brain, heart, sweet bread (thymus and pancreas), French fries (testicles), kidney, oxtail, tripe (cow's stomach) and tongue. In anima, bones and roast meat are used as bone meal