In the dairy industry, implementing strategies to improve and strengthen milk process optimization is crucial. The rapid deterioration of dairy products forces dairy processors to strictly optimize and plan production plans. The business model focuses on labor, reducing or eliminating any waste of time and/or resources, unnecessary costs, bottlenecks, and errors, while achieving the process goal of creating high-quality products.
The global dairy industry is currently undergoing transformation. The dairy product price index of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) shows that the price is 26% lower than the peak in February 2014. China's demand for dairy products has started to slow down, with trade sanctions against Russia and the end of "milk quotas" within the EU leading to a period of oversupply and low prices. Nevertheless, the dairy industry is still expanding and is expected to grow at an annual rate of 1.8% over the next 10 years, reaching 177 million tons of milk powder by 2025. This growth is mainly due to the increase in urbanization and income growth in emerging markets. However, in the European Union, dairy farmers use intervention in inventory to protect themselves from the impact of international price declines. For example, in September 2017, EU farmers shipped 16597 tons of skimmed milk powder to intervention inventory at a price of 1.698 euros.
In addition, changes in consumer demand patterns are affecting food production. Traditional value drivers such as price, taste, and convenience have been supplemented by updated and evolutionary drivers such as health, safety, social impact, and experience. The core of all these driving factors is the demand for transparency by food companies. Given the constantly changing driving factors of consumer food value, dairy producers must focus on their production processes, innovate new products and optimize production without affecting quality and safety.
The world's milk is mainly milk, followed by Buffalo milk. The main producing countries include Asia (30%), followed by the European Union (28%), North and Central America (18%), South America (9%), other European countries (9%), Africa (5%), and Oceania (5%). To be named a dairy product, food must be produced from milk from cows, water buffalo, goats, etc. The dairy industry includes foods such as liquid milk, milk powder, cheese, butter, yogurt, and ice cream. Several factors, including heredity, animal variety, environment, lactation stage, parity and nutrition, Co-determination the final composition of milk . Milk and dairy products are important sources of protein, essential minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, iodine), and several vitamins (fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K and B1, B3, B6, B12). In Western diets, dairy products provide 40% to 70% of the recommended daily calcium intake. Milk contains approximately 87% water and 12-13% total solids. Solids include about 4% fat and about 9% non fat solids, such as protein, lactose, various minerals, and vitamins. Milk protein is composed of whey and Casein; There are four different types of Casein（ α S1 α S2 β and κ- Casein), they are independent molecules, but they are similar in structure, accounting for about 80% of the total milk protein. The main Whey protein in cow's milk and goat's milk is β- Lactoglobulin and α- Whey albumin; Other proteins are serum albumin and immunoglobulin. Secondary proteins include Lactoferrin, an iron binding protein, and Major histocompatibility complex II β The 2-microglobulin portion, most of which are enzymes, including; Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decomposes bacterial cell wall in milk and has low activity of Lysozyme, protease, protease activator, Nuclease, glycosidase, etc. Milk protein, which contains nine Essential amino acid, is an important food for human beings. Casein is easily digested, while Whey protein is relatively difficult to digest in the intestine.
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