The milk processing section contains general information on important operations in milk processing. Milk processing from farm to processing plant. It mainly includes:
Heat treatment and pasteurization
Liquid milk production
Ice cream production
Milk is obtained from cows (or goats, sheep or buffalo) under hygienic conditions and cooled to 7 ° C within 2 hours after milking. The milk is sampled by the processor and then pumped from the farm's bulk cans into the milk truck. A handler can extract milk from multiple farms, so when the milk is transported to the processing plant, the milk loaded by the truck may contain milk from multiple farms. Before the milk can be unloaded at the processing plant, each batch of milk should be tested for antibiotic residues. If there is no sign of antibiotics in the milk, it will be pumped into the storage tank of the factory for further processing. If the milk fails the antibiotic test, the whole truck of milk will be discarded and farm samples will be tested to find the source of antibiotic residues.
The milk in the factory is stored at a temperature lower than 7 ° C and is usually processed within 24 hours, but can be stored for 72 hours before processing. A longer holding time allows spoilage organisms that grow at the temperature of the refrigerator to grow, known as psychrophilic bacteria.
The heat treatment conditions used for pasteurization depend on the final product - low temperature for frozen products and high temperature for products stored at room temperature.